Are you looking for a reliable metric that offers a comprehensive understanding of a player’s offensive performance in baseball? In the ever-evolving landscape of baseball analytics, understanding and leveraging the right metrics can significantly enhance your appreciation of the game. Enter On-base Plus Slugging (OPS), a pivotal metric that amalgamates a player’s ability to get on base with their slugging power to present a singular figure representing overall offensive prowess. But why does OPS matter, and how can it change your view of the game?

The beauty of OPS lies in its simplicity and depth. At first glance, it adds up a player’s on-base percentage (OBP) and slugging percentage (SLG), offering a straightforward metric. Yet, beneath this simple calculation is a world of insight, highlighting not just how often a player gets on base, but also their power-hitting capabilities. This dual focus on reaching base and slugging ability distinguishes OPS from other metrics, providing a more nuanced perspective on offensive performance. From the historical highs set by legends like Barry Bonds to the notable performances of contemporary stars such as Shohei Ohtani and Ronald Acuna Jr., OPS has proven itself as a versatile and adaptable metric that remains relevant across eras.

Moreover, in today’s analytics-driven baseball environment, OPS goes beyond traditional stats like batting averages, reflecting the changing dynamics of the game and offering fans, analysts, and teams alike a valuable tool in measuring and comparing players’ offensive contributions. Whether you’re a seasoned analyst or a passionate fan, understanding OPS and its implications can enrich your baseball experience, allowing you to recognize and appreciate exceptional talent and strategic nuance in the game. Reading further, you’ll delve into the intricacies of OPS, its calculation, context relevance, and its critical role in the analytical revolution shaping modern baseball.

On-base Plus Slugging (OPS) InformationDetails
DefinitionOPS combines a player’s on-base percentage (OBP) and slugging percentage (SLG) into a single statistic to measure a hitter’s performance in terms of reaching base and hitting for power. It can also assess pitchers in terms of OPS against.
Importance in BaseballOPS is becoming the preferred metric over batting average as it provides a more comprehensive glimpse into a player’s offensive capabilities, considering both the ability to get on base and to hit for power.
Criticism and DebateCritics argue that OPS is flawed because it weights on-base percentage and slugging percentage equally, despite evidence suggesting on-base percentage is more closely correlated with scoring runs. Advanced stats like wOBA are considered by some to be more accurate.
Historical ContextFred Dunlap and Ross Barnes are noted for their exceptional OPS in early baseball history, though their achievements come with asterisks due to the era and rules of their times. Babe Ruth’s seasons are prominent in the absence of these outliers.
Modern Use and PopularityWith the evolution of baseball statistics, OPS is heavily utilized in player evaluation, surpassing traditional metrics like batting average to indicate a player’s offensive value.
What Makes a Good OPS?Generally, an OPS above .800 is considered indicative of a good hitter. The threshold for exceptional performance is around 1.000, a mark achieved by only a select group of players each season.
2023 Top Players by OPSNotable mentions include Shohei Ohtani, Mookie Betts, and Ronald Acuña Jr., showcasing the diverse talent and offensive prowess within MLB.
Calculating OPSTo calculate OPS, you simply add a player’s OBP and SLG percentages. This statistic serves as a quick and broad measure of a player’s offensive contribution.
Is OPS the Ultimate Metric?While invaluable, OPS is part of a broader set of statistics in baseball analytics. It provides a snapshot of performance but may be complemented by other metrics for a fuller evaluation.
️ Better Stats than OPS?There’s debate on whether metrics like wOBA or OPS+ provide a more nuanced understanding of player performance, as they adjust for factors like ballparks and the relative value of getting on base versus slugging.

Understanding OPS in Baseball

Baseball OPS Explained

The Essence of OPS

On-base Plus Slugging (OPS) is a comprehensive statistic used in baseball to measure a player’s offensive performance by combining two key components: on-base percentage (OBP) and slugging percentage (SLG). It essentially quantifies a player’s ability to get on base along with their batting power. This metric has gained popularity for its ability to provide a quick snapshot of a player’s offensive value.

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OPS Computation: OBP and SLG

Calculating OPS involves adding a player’s on-base percentage and slugging percentage. OBP measures how frequently a player reaches base per plate appearance, accounting for hits, walks, and hit-by-pitches. SLG, on the other hand, gauges the total base hits a player earns, highlighting their ability to hit for power. Together, these statistics form the OPS formula:

This simple addition grants a fuller understanding of a player’s offensive prowess.

Historical Context: The Evolution of OPS

The concept of OPS has roots tracing back to the early 20th century, evolving as statisticians sought more comprehensive ways to assess batting performance. Its importance surged in the sabermetrics era, prominently featured in the “Moneyball” philosophy, which prioritizes on-base percentage and underscores the value of OPS in evaluating players.

OPS as a Performance Indicator

Interpretation of OPS Scores

Interpreting OPS is straightforward: the higher the OPS, the better the hitter. Major League Baseball’s average OPS has historically fluctuated, but as a rule of thumb, an OPS above .800 is considered indicative of a strong offensive player. Truly elite hitters often boast an OPS above 1.000, showcasing their exceptional ability to both get on base and hit for power.

Average OPS in the Major Leagues

The average OPS in the Major Leagues has varied from year to year, with recent seasons’ averages hovering around .750. Given the fluctuations in offensive performance across different eras and the impact of various factors such as ballpark dimensions, comparing players’ OPS figures to the league average of their respective seasons offers a fair assessment of their performance.

OPS for Evaluating Pitchers

While primarily an offensive metric, OPS can be inverted to evaluate pitchers through OPS against (OPSa). This figure represents the collective OPS of batters faced by a pitcher, offering insight into the pitcher’s effectiveness at limiting hitters’ base-reaching and power-hitting abilities.

OPS in Contemporary Baseball Analytics

OPS vs. Traditional Batting Averages

OPS presents a more nuanced view of a player’s offensive contributions than traditional batting averages (BA). Unlike BA, which solely counts hits, OPS underscores the importance of both reaching base and slugging ability, representing a multifaceted approach to evaluating hitters.

The Role of OPS in Modern Player Evaluation

In today’s analytics-driven ethos, OPS stands out for balancing simplicity with comprehensiveness, making it a preferred metric over batting average. It aligns with the holistic assessment strategies modern front offices and analysts use, reflecting a player’s overall offensive value.

Seasonal Variations and Their Impact on OPS

Seasonal variations, such as changes in playing conditions, baseball manufacturing, and rule adjustments, can significantly impact OPS figures across the league. Thus, comparing OPS scores within the context of a specific season or era becomes crucial for accurately gauging player performance, ensuring fair evaluations that account for external variables.

In conclusion, OPS remains a pivotal metric in baseball analytics, offering a dual perspective on a player’s ability to contribute offensively. Its enduring relevance underscores the evolving nature of baseball statistics, marking OPS as a key indicator of hitting proficiency in the modern game.

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The Significance of OPS in Historical Performances

Record-Setting OPS Performances

When we delve into the annals of baseball history, OPS (On-base Plus Slugging) stands as a beacon illuminating the prowess of hitters through eras. It’s not just a number; it encapsulates a player’s knack for both reaching the bases and wielding power.

Barry Bonds’ record-shattering OPS of 1.422 in 2003 is an apex achievement, showcasing an unparalleled combination of on-base ability and slugging prowess. Bonds’ monumental season eclipses numerous historical benchmarks, underscoring the evolution of offensive strategies and player conditioning over time.

However, it’s pertinent to note the historical contexts of OPS legends. For instance, Fred Dunlap’s remarkable 1884 season, with an OPS recorded in the more ambiguous Union Association, prompts discussions about league quality and its impact on stats. Similarly, Ross Barnes, benefiting from now-obsolete rules, exemplifies the shifts in baseball’s regulations and their effects on players’ stats.

Adjusting for eras and rules, players like Babe Ruth also emerge with multiple seasons of OPS brilliance. Ruth’s dominance in the 1920s, with OPS figures that still rank among the all-time highest, underline the persistent value of an elite OPS in evaluating hitters across different periods of baseball history.

Adjustments for Historical Comparisons

The conversation around OPS also necessitates a nuanced understanding of its application across distinct baseball epochs. Historical comparisons are refined by acknowledging changes in league-wide offensive environments, ballparks, and equipment – factors that invariably influence OPS figures.

Era-adjusted metrics such as OPS+ come into play here, providing a means to level the statistical playing field. OPS+ accounts for the varying offensive contexts, enabling fairer comparisons of players from the dead-ball era to those in the live-ball era, and onto today’s game. This adjustment is critical when elevating discussions from mere number comparison to assessing true historical significance and player impact.

Critiques and Limitations of OPS

OPS’s Lack of Differentiation between OBP and SLG

In the critical view, OPS, despite its widespread usage, presents interpretive limitations. Foremost among these is its equal weighting of OBP (On-base Percentage) and SLG (Slugging Percentage). Given the stronger correlation of OBP with run production, OPS’s formula has faced scrutiny for not adequately reflecting the true value contributions of hitters.

The discrepancy in league-average OBP and SLG further complicates OPS’s effectiveness as a comprehensive metric. With SLG usually outpacing OBP, OPS can inadvertently skew in favor of power hitters, possibly overshadowing the contributions of players who excel in getting on base.

Introduction of Weighted Metrics: Addressing OPS’s Shortcomings

In response to OPS’s limitations, the introduction of weighted stats like wOBA (weighted On-base Average) has garnered attention. By employing linear weights to differentiate the value of singles, doubles, triples, and home runs, wOBA offers a more precise measure of a player’s offensive value, compared to OPS’s broader brushstroke.

wOBA’s integration of linear weights directly addresses OPS’s equal treatment of OBP and SLG, aligning closer with the run value contributions of different hitting outcomes. This advancement in metric sophistication reflects an evolving understanding of offensive production in baseball analytics.

The Future of OPS in Baseball Analytics

OPS Adjustments and Relevance in an Evolving Sport

As baseball continues its analytical evolution, OPS remains a foundational metric, tethering traditional statistics with the sabermetric era. Its simplicity and historical continuity ensure its relevance, yet the baseball analytics community is leaning towards enhanced versions of OPS, such as OPS+, which adjusts for park factors and league averages, offering a more nuanced perspective on player performance.

The Continued Importance of OPS Amidst New Metrics

Despite the emergence of new metrics, OPS’s enduring relevance is anchored in its ability to summarize a player’s two most critical offensive skills succinctly. Its future, paralleled with baseball’s analytical advancements, will likely see OPS integrated within a broader suite of metrics, serving not as a standalone arbiter of value but as a key component in a multifaceted evaluation toolkit.

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Conclusively, while OPS may not capture the full spectrum of a player’s offensive contributions, its historical significance, ease of comprehension, and adaptability ensure its place in the ongoing discourse of baseball analytics. As we continue to refine and develop more comprehensive metrics, OPS serves as a bridge between eras, inviting a deeper appreciation of baseball’s rich statistical landscape.

OPS Definition and Importance

On-base Plus Slugging (OPS)The sum of a player’s on-base percentage (OBP) and slugging percentage (SLG).Combines a player’s ability to reach base and hit for average and power, providing a more complete picture of offensive performance than traditional metrics like batting average.
OBPMeasures how often a batter reaches base per plate appearance. Includes hits, walks, and hit-by-pitches.Highlights a player’s efficiency in getting on base, a key component in scoring runs.
SLGMeasures the total number of bases a player earns divided by their total at-bats, recognizing that not all hits contribute equally.Gauges a player’s power by accounting for the value of singles, doubles, triples, and home runs differently.
OPS for PitchersReferred to as OPS against, it measures the OPS of opposing hitters.Useful for evaluating a pitcher’s effectiveness in limiting opposing hitters’ ability to get on base and hit for power.

OPS in Evaluating Player Performance

YearLeague Average OPSStrong OPS IndicatorExceptional OPSNote
2019.758> .800≈ 1.000OPS varies annually; context matters
2022.706> .800≈ 1.000Recent downward trend observed

Controversy Surrounding OPS Usage

CriticismExplanationAlternatives Proposed
Weighting IssueOPS treats OBP and SLG as equal, but OBP correlates more closely with scoring runs.wOBA uses linear weights to differentiate components.
Component DisparityLeague-average SLG is usually 75–100 points higher than OBP, causing an imbalance in OPS.Enhanced metrics like OPS+ and wRC+ include weighting.

OPS and Major League Baseball (MLB) Milestones

PlayerOPS (Year)Remark
Barry Bonds1.422 (2003)Highest single-season OPS recorded
Fred Dunlap1.013 (1884)Noted in historical context
Ross Barnes1.034 (1876)Early baseball era, rules impact

Note: OPS scores are subject to league and era adjustments for full accuracy.

Top MLB Players by OPS in 2023

1Shohei OhtaniAngels1.070
2Mookie BettsDodgers.989
3Ronald AcuñaBraves.986
4Freddie FreemanDodgers.986
5Matt OlsonBraves.981

Note: OPS is a dynamic statistic that can dramatically vary from season to season and player to player.


In the vast and intricate world of baseball analytics, On-base Plus Slugging (OPS) has solidified its position as a crucial yardstick for gauging player performance. Through my comprehensive review and experience in the baseball analytics domain, it’s evident that OPS offers a multifaceted perspective on a player’s offensive abilities, combining insights into both their capacity to reach base and their power at the plate. This dual facet makes OPS an invaluable metric for teams, players, and analysts alike, seeking to quantify and elevate game strategies. However, it’s also imperative to acknowledge the metric’s inherent limitations, specifically its equal weighting of on-base and slugging percentages. This nuance underscores the importance of integrating OPS with other advanced metrics, like weighted on-base average (wOBA), to achieve a more rounded evaluation of offensive contribution.

Based on the historical and recent data, including the standout OPS achievements of players like Barry Bonds and more contemporary stars such as Shohei Ohtani, OPS undeniably remains a key indicator of exceptional performance. It adapts well to reflect different eras and playing conditions, maintaining its relevance in today’s analytics-driven baseball culture. For anyone delving into baseball statistics, comprehending OPS and its context within the sport’s analytics ecosystem is paramount. I strongly recommend employing OPS as a foundational metric in assessing player performance while also considering its limitations and complementing it with other evaluative tools to gain the most comprehensive understanding of a player’s offensive value. Whether you’re a seasoned analyst, a budding enthusiast, or somewhere in between, embracing OPS in your analytical repertoire will undoubtedly deepen your appreciation and understanding of the beautiful game of baseball.

Questions and answers about the baseball ops

⚾ What is OPS in baseball?

OPS stands for On-base Plus Slugging. It is an offensive metric in baseball that combines a player’s ability to reach base (measured by on-base percentage, or OBP) with their hitting power (measured by slugging percentage, or SLG). The formula for OPS is simple: OBP + SLG = OPS. This statistic gives a fuller picture of a player’s offensive performance by highlighting not just their ability to get on base, but also their power at the plate.

⚾ How is OPS calculated?

To calculate a player’s OPS, you add their on-base percentage (OBP) to their slugging percentage (SLG). The on-base percentage quantifies how frequently a player gets on base through hits, walks, and being hit by pitches. The slugging percentage evaluates the total bases a player records per at-bat, differentiating the value of singles, doubles, triples, and home runs. The formula is represented as OBP + SLG = OPS.

⚾ What is considered a good OPS in baseball?

A good OPS in baseball typically depends on the era and the offensive environment of the league. However, as a general rule of thumb, any OPS above .800 is indicative of a strong offensive player. An OPS around the league average, which recently has hovered in the .700-.750 range, is considered average. An OPS over 1.000 is exceptional and usually only achieved by the game’s elite hitters.

⚾ Does OPS favor certain types of players?

Yes, OPS can favor players who excel in both getting on base and hitting for power. For instance, a player who hits many home runs (which increases their slugging percentage) and also draws a lot of walks (boosting their on-base percentage) would have a high OPS. It might undervalue players who excel primarily in singles hitting and speed, components that contribute more to batting average than to OPS.

⚾ Can OPS be used to evaluate pitchers?

Yes, OPS can be used to evaluate pitchers, though it is then referred to as OPS against. OPS against measures the combined on-base and slugging percentages of opposing hitters when facing a particular pitcher. A lower OPS against indicates better performance by the pitcher, as it suggests they are limiting hitters both in terms of reaching base and hitting for power.

⚾ How does OPS compare to batting average?

While the batting average solely measures a player’s ability to get hits, OPS combines a player’s ability to get on base with their ability to hit for power, offering a more comprehensive view of a player’s offensive value. Because of this, OPS is often considered a superior metric for evaluating hitters compared to batting averages, which do not account for walks or the extra value of doubles, triples, and home runs.

⚾ Are there better metrics than OPS?

While OPS is a valuable offensive metric, some critics argue it places equal weight on on-base percentage and slugging percentage, despite on-base percentage being more directly correlated with run production. More advanced metrics like wOBA (weighted on-base average) and wRC+ (weighted runs created plus) build on OPS’s foundation by applying different weights to various offensive outcomes, providing a potentially more accurate measure of a player’s overall offensive contribution.

By Joseph Johnson

Joseph Johnson is the main writer on the site. He prepares up-to-date news and reviews on baseball.